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Full text of "Flora Indica Vol-I"

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224                                      FLORA  INDICA.
those of Kishtwar. Padum, the- capital, is 12,000 feet above
the sea; and a rich herbaceous vegetation occupies the river-
flats and ravines. The Zanskar basin is cut off from that of
the Indus by lofty ranges, and the defile through which the
Zanskar river flows to the Indus is rocky and impracticable.
4.  DRAS.—This province occupies the same position rela-
tively to Kashmir that Zanskar does to Kishtwar.   The com-
munication between Dras and Kashmir is by a remarkable
depression—the Zoji Pass, whose elevation being only 11,300
feet, gives free access to the moist winds of Kashmir, and
Dras is hence the most humid and fertile province of Tibet;
its flora approaching very closely to that of Kashmir.
The openness of the valleys of Dras, and the occurrence of
elevated plains or steppes at its north-west extremity, which
have been called the plains of Deotsu, are remarkable excep-
tions to the generally rugged nature of Tibet; and the fact
of Dras and Gugc having both been visited and described by
European travellers before most other parts of Tibet, and their
both being so exceptionally level as compared -with the rest
of that country, has materially tended to spread the erro-
neous impression of the whole of Tibet being a scries of ele-
vated plains.
Artemisia and Umbeflifera, including Prangos pabularia,
are abundant in the Dras valley, and the prevalent Chen-o-
podiacea of Tibet arc scarce. Vitis, 'Impatiens, Black Cur-
rant, Silene inflata, Aconitmi, Hypericum, Vernonw, Junipe-
rus, Thymw Serpyllum, AcMllea Mittefolia, Comatlaria, and
Tulipa, all very rare in Tibet, occur in the valley. Towards
the summit of the Pass, Dr. Thomson gathered 110 species
on the Tibet side, of which all but sk or seven were Kash-
5.  NARI^—Of this province (more accurately called Nari-
Khoraum) nothing is known botanically; it is enormously
lofty, utterly barren, and almost uninhabited, except on the
lowest part of the ravine of the Indus, whose sources have
not been visited by any traveller; nor has the province been